Evidence about health-system arrangements

The COVID-END inventory is no longer being updated. Below we provide the ‘best’ living evidence syntheses currently available as of January 2024 (i.e., the highest quality, most regularly updated living evidence syntheses) about health-system arrangements to respond to COVID-19. All other evidence syntheses can be found in the searchable COVID-END inventory of evidence syntheses, which is organized using the COVID-END taxonomy of decisions.


Topic addressedCriteria for 'best evidence synthesis'Details to support relevance assessmentAdditional decision-relevant detailsCitation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence-certainty (e.g., GRADE) assessment availableKey findings
Living evidence synthesisType of synthesis             Type of question
Vaccine roll-out2021-02-035/9NoEvidence shows that negative beliefs about vaccine efficacy and safety were associated with lower vaccination acceptance among healthcare workers, non-physician health professionals were more likely to have lower acceptance rates, and having a history of accepting influenza vaccination was associated with an increase COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate [Review of studies of unknown quality conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]Yes (row content last checked on 2023-12-31)Rapid reviewOtherCrawshaw, J., Konnyu, K., Castillo, G., van Allen, Z., Grimshaw, JM., Presseau, J. Factors affecting healthcare worker COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and uptake: A living behavioural science evidence synthesis (v2, May 18th, 2021). Ottawa: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, May 18, 2021.
 2021-04-205/9NoStudies show that vaccination acceptance rates varied in different geographical settings from 40 %to 92%, whereas capability factors, opportunity factors and motivation factors were key important factors driving vaccination acceptance among the general public [Review of studies of unknown quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2023-12-31)Rapid reviewOther
Crawshaw, J., Konnyu, K., Castillo, G., van Allen, Z., Grimshaw, JM., Presseau, J. Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and uptake among the general public: A living behavioural science evidence synthesis (v1.0, Apr 30th, 2021). Ottawa: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute,
Apr 30, 2021
Long-term care home ownership status2021-01-268/10NoAlthough evidence shows that for-profit ownership in care homes for older people has not been consistently associated with COVID-19 outbreaks, some studies show that they accounted for a larger proportion of cumulative infections and deaths, which could be explained by less access to personal protection equipment in these facilities [Review of observational studies mainly of low quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2023-12-31)Full reviewOtherBach-Mortensen AM, Verboom B, Esposti MD. Ownership and COVID-19 in care homes for older people: A living systematic review of outbreaks, infections, and mortalities. medRxiv. 2021.
Care models for post-COVID care2021-10-076/9NoTwenty international care models have been found to treat long COVID-19 symptoms, with the five most common principles being multidisciplinary teams, integrated care, continuity or coordination of care, self-management and evidence-based care; no evidence on the impact or costs of these models have been foundYes (row content last checked on 2023-12-31)Full reviewOtherDecary S, Dugas M, Stefan T, Langlois L, Skidmore B, Bhéreur A, and LeBlanc A.
Maternal and newborn care2021-05-149/11NoCompared to pre-pandemic levels, no differences have been found in the adjusted pre-term birth or maternal mortality rates during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of moderate quality with important heterogeneity among some of the outcomes]Yes (row content last checked on 2023-12-31)Full reviewOtherYang J, D'souza R, Kharrat A, Fell DB, Snelgrove JW, Murphy KE, et al. COVID-19 pandemic and population-level pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstetricia Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2021.